Zoom Platinum Best Collagen Powder Manufactured in the USA Lab Tested Codeage Hydrolyzed Keratin Biotin Vitamin C Vitamin D
Zoom Codeage Multi Collagen Platinum Keratin Biotin Niacin Hydrolyzed Collagen Powder
Zoom Codeage Multi Collagen Niacin Keratin Biotin Hydrolyzed Collagen Powder
Zoom Codeage Multi Collagen Keratin Biotin Niacin Hydrolyzed Collagen Powder
Zoom Codeage Multi Collagen Biotin Niacin Keratin Hydrolyzed Collagen Platinum Powder
Zoom Best Collagen Powder Peptides Supplement Codeage Keratin Vitamin C Biotin Vitamin B6 Niacin Unflavored

Multi Collagen Peptides Powder Platinum.

Multi Collagen, Multivitamins, Biotin, Keratin, Hyaluronic Acid All-In-One
    $37.99
    381 reviews
    5 Types Collagen

    Description

    Product Details

    • 5 types of hydrolyzed collagen powder (type I, II, III, V & X)
    • 5 food sources of collagen peptides including grass-fed hydrolyzed bovine collagen, organic chicken bone broth, organic beef bone broth. wild caught white fish collagen and eggshell collagens
    • 10,000 mcg biotin
    • Hydrolyzed keratin
    • Vitamin B6, vitamin C & vitamin D3
    • Hyaluronic acid and niacin
    • Pantothenic acid
    • 18 amino acids
    • Non-GMO
    • Unflavored
    • Zero carbs
    • Dairy, soy, gluten, shellfish, and oil-free
    • Pure of artificial flavors, colors, or additives
    • Designed for men and women
    • Third-party tested
    • Manufactured in the USA in a cGMP-certified facility

    Featured Ingredients

    Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen

    Types 1 & 3 collagen

    Organic Chicken Bone Broth

    Type 2 collagen

    Biotin

    10,000 mcg

    Keratin

    500 mg

    Vitamin C, D & Hyaluronic Acid

    + Niacin, vitamin B6 & pantothenic acid

    Beauty formulation in a collagen powder

    You don’t name a formula “platinum” lightly. You do so only when it truly deserves it. In this case, we believe it does. Why? Because we’ve combined our very best ingredients into one collagen solution. And that's a platinum choice.

    Suggested use

    Adults mix 1 scoop daily of Codeage Multi Collagen Platinum Edition powder with 8 ounces of your favorite beverage, coffee, smoothies & baked treats to upgrade your diet. Do not exceed recommended dose.

    See caution

    CAUTION: Do not exceed recommended dose. Please use caution if you have allergies or sensitivities to any of the listed ingredients. Pregnant or nursing mothers and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any dietary supplement. Use only as directed. Some people might experience slight intolerance to marine or bovine product. If gastrointestinal discomfort (including bloating, cramps, diarrhea, or other digestive upset) or other sensitivity is experienced stop taking the product immediately. Some people are allergic to bovine (beef) or fish. If you are pregnant, nursing, or have a medical condition, please consult with your physician before use. If you have any questions about consuming this dietary supplement, consult with your health care professional before using. If you use prescription drugs or over-the-counter medications, are unaware of your current medical condition or have a pre-existing medical condition(s), consult with your health care professional before using. Discontinue use immediately if you experience any adverse symptoms or reactions while taking this product. Discontinue use 2 weeks prior to surgery. Do not use if your health status is unknown. Do not use if safety seal is damaged or missing. Keep out of reach of children and pets. Store in a cool, dry place, away from heat moisture. Biotin can be received in adequate or extra amounts from food and regular diet only. Use this product as a food supplement only. Do not use for weight reduction.

    Additional Details

    Beauty formulation in a collagen powder

    You don’t name a formula “platinum” lightly. You do so only when it truly deserves it. In this case, we believe it does. Why? Because we’ve combined our very best ingredients into one collagen solution. And that's a platinum choice.

    See all ingredients

    Ingredients:

    Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid), Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol), Niacin (as Niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid (as D-Calcium Pantothenate), Multi-Collagen Complex: Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen Peptides (BSE-free), Organic Chicken Bone Broth, Organic Beef Bone Broth (BSE-free), Wild-Caught Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen Peptides, Eggshell Membrane Collagen, Hydrolyzed Keratin, Hyaluronic Acid (as Sodium Hyaluronate).

    Amino acid profile (average milligrams per serving): Alanine 867 mg, Arginine 737 mg, Aspartic Acid 558 mg, Glutamic Acid 979 mg, Glycine 2334 mg, Histidine 73 mg, Hydroxylysine 85 mg, Hydroxyproline 1134 mg, Isoleucine 149 mg, Leucine 285 mg, Lysine 358 mg, Methionine 86 mg, Phenylalanine 189 mg, Proline 1354 mg, Serine 325 mg, Threonine 177 mg, Tyrosine 50 mg, Valine 220 mg. Average milligrams per serving naturally occurring; absolute values may vary. Contains 8 of 9 essential amino acids. Not a significant source of protein. Collagen protein does not count toward the FDA recommended Percent Daily Value for protein because it lacks one essential amino acid: tryptophan. Packaged by weight, not volume. Settling may occur.

    Pairs With

    References

    Biotin: an essential B vitamin involved in a number of specific biological reactions responsible for the metabolism of fats, glucose and amino acids

    Biotin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.  NIH.  https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C: antioxidant support, collagen synthesis, skin & hair health

    See more

    One of vitamin Cs essential functions is to serve as an antioxidant, protecting the body from excessive oxidation.  Vitamin C plays a pivotal role in the regeneration of vitamin E, another important antioxidant.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C is required to support synthesis of collagen in the body.  Collagen is the major component of the bodys connective tissue.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C supports skin health in two ways: as an antioxidant and as a required cofactor for production of collagen in the body.  References for these roles are provided above.

    Skin dermal and epidermal layers contain relatively high amounts of vitamin C.  Age and UV exposure can reduce tissue levels.

    Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-C

    Vitamin D, from diet and production within the skin, play a vital role in skin health.  More specifically, vitamin D in skin plays a critical role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, the cells responsible for producing the structural protein keratin. This process ensures normal cell growth and maintains the skin barrier. Vitamin D has also been shown to be involved in maintaining the growth cycle of mature hair follicles.

    Vitamin D.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin D and Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University.  https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-D

    Vitamin B6: essential in the metabolism of protein, fat, carbohydrates

    Vitamin B6 is found in 6 forms all of which can be utilized.  Two forms, Pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5 phosphate (PMP) are the active coenzyme forms of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, primarily concerned with protein metabolism. Both PLP and PMP are involved in amino acid metabolism, and PLP is also involved in the metabolism of one-carbon units, carbohydrates, and lipids 

    Vitamin B6.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb6-healthprofessional/

    Pantothenic acid: essential in fatty acid metabolism

    The primary functions of Pantothenic acid involve the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein, both of which are involved in the metabolism of fatty acids.

    Pantothenic acid. Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/PantothenicAcid-HealthProfessional/

    Hydrolyzed keratin protein: a source of amino acids used by the body form new protein

    Keratin is a major structural protein in hair and nails.

    Composition of hair and nails ( and overview of conditions):

    J McKittrick, PY Chen, SG Bodde, W Yang The structure, functions, and mechanical properties of keratin.- Jom, 2012

    http://meyersgroup.ucsd.edu/papers/journals/Meyers%20354.pdf

    P Grinzi. Hair and nails.  - Australian Family Physician, 2011

    https://www.racgp.org.au/getattachment/065396cf-bb0c-4fd6-99fb-63fa5a3770b1/Hair-and-nails.aspx

    Hyaluronic acid: joint & skin health

    HA supports joint lubrication. Several human studies in persons who are healthy as well as those with osteoarthritis, experienced reduction in knee pain following ingestion of oral HA.  Various daily doses were studied (80 mg-630 mg) and all showed benefit. (The complex molecule hyaluronan is found in the joint space where if lubricates and cushions joints.)

    Oe M, Tashiro T, Yoshida H, Nishiyama H, Masuda Y, Maruyama K, Koikeda T, Maruya R, Fukui N. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutr J. 2016 Jan 27;15:11. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0128-2. PMID: 26818459; PMCID: PMC4729158.

    HA supports skin hydration. Hyaluronic acid is a building block of hyaluronan, a complex molecule found in the extracellular matrix of tissues such as skin, eye and joints.  It plays a role in lubrication of joints and is important in maintaining skin moisture. 

    Oral supplementation with HA has been shown in at least 6 human studies to improve skin moisture content.  These studies have been reviewed by Kawada et al.  Studies examined a range of doses (37.5 mg HA per day to 240 mg HA per day-3 studies at 120 mg HA per day). The consumption period ranged from 4 to 12 weeks, with all time periods showing benefit.

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, Matsuoka R, Sakamoto W, Odanaka W, Sato T, Yamasaki T, Kanemitsu T, Masuda Y, Urushibata O. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014 Jul 11;13:70. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70. PMID: 25014997; PMCID: PMC4110621.

    Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen

    Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing Skin Health: By Oral Administration of Natural Compounds and Minerals with Implications to the Dermal Microbiome. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(10):3059. Published 2018 Oct 7. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103059

    Saha A, Alam MJ, Ashraf KU, Mannan A. Computational analysis of bovine alpha-1 collagen sequences. Bioinformation. 2013;9(1):4248. doi: 10.6026/97320630009042

    León-López A, Morales-Peñaloza A, Martínez-Juárez VM, Vargas-Torres A, Zeugolis DI, Aguirre-Álvarez G. Hydrolyzed Collagen-Sources and Applications. Molecules. 2019;24(22):4031. Published 2019 Nov 7. doi: 10.3390/molecules24224031

    K. Henriksen, M.A. Karsdal, in Biochemistry of Collagens, Laminins and Elastin, 2016

    Albaugh VL, Mukherjee K, Barbul A. Proline Precursors and Collagen Synthesis: Biochemical Challenges of Nutrient Supplementation and Wound Healing. J Nutr. 2017;147(11):20112017. doi:10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Avila Rodríguez, MI, Rodríguez Barroso, LG, Sánchez, ML. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications. J Cosmet. Dermatol. 2018; 17: 20 26. DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12450

    Paul C, Leser S, Oesser S. Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1079. Published 2019 May 15.  doi: 10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 27(1), 4755. DOI: 10.1159/000351376

    Zdzieblik D, Oesser S, Baumstark MW, Gollhofer A, König D. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(8):12371245. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002810

    Organic Chicken Bone Broth

    Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6(6):312321. Published 2009 Oct 9. doi: 10.7150/ijms.6.312

    Bakilan F, Armagan O, Ozgen M, Tascioglu F, Bolluk O, Alatas O. Effects of Native Type II Collagen Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Eurasian J Med. 2016;48(2):95101. doi: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2015.15030

    Lugo, J.P., Saiyed, Z.M. & Lane, N.E. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 15, 14 (2015). DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0130-8

    Bagchi, D., Misner, B., Bagchi, M., Kothari, S. C., Downs, B. W., Fafard, R. D., & Preuss, H. G. (2002). Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration. International journal of clinical pharmacology research, 22(3-4), 101110.

    Zhu, P., Li, X. Y., Wang, H. K., Jia, J. F., Zheng, Z. H., Ding, J., & Fan, C. M. (2007). Oral administration of type-II collagen peptide 250-270 suppresses specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 122(1), 7584. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2006.08.004

    Barnett, M. L., Kremer, J. M., St Clair, E. W., Clegg, D. O., Furst, D., Weisman, M., Fletcher, M. J., Chasan-Taber, S., Finger, E., Morales, A., Le, C. H., & Trentham, D. E. (1998). Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis and rheumatism, 41(2), 290297. DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199802)41:2<290::AID-ART13>3.0.CO;2-R

    Yoshinari, O., Moriyama, H., & Shiojima, Y. (2015). An overview of a novel, water-soluble undenatured type II collagen (NEXT-II). Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 34(3), 255262. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2014.919541

    Paul, C., Leser, S., & Oesser, S. (2019). Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients, 11(5), 1079. DOI: 10.3390/nu11051079

    Darling, A. L., Manders, R., Sahni, S., Zhu, K., Hewitt, C. E., Prince, R. L., Millward, D. J., & Lanham-New, S. A. (2019). Dietary protein and bone health across the life-course: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis over 40 years. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 30(4), 741761. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-019-04933-8

    Lerman, R. H., Chang, J. L., Konda, V., Desai, A., & Montalto, M. B. (2015). Nutritional Approach for Relief of Joint Discomfort: A 12-week, Open-case Series and Illustrative Case Report. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 14(5), 5261. PMCID: PMC4712866

    Biotin

    Glynis A. A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of an Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(11):28-34. PMID: 23198010

    Janos Zempleni, Yousef I Hassan & Subhashinee SK Wijeratne (2008) Biotin and biotinidase deficiency, Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3:6, 715-724, DOI: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    S. Daniells and G. Hardy, Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 690697, November 2010. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833ece02

    Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Sparavigna A, Tenconi B, La Penna L. Efficacy and tolerability of a biomineral formulation for treatment of onychoschizia: a randomized trial. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019;12:355362. Published 2019 May 13. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S187305

    Lipner, S. R., & Scher, R. K. (2018). Biotin for the treatment of nail disease: what is the evidence?. The Journal of dermatological treatment, 29(4), 411414. DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1395799

    Victor E. Colombo, Françoise Gerber, Max Bronhofer, George L. Floersheim. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. Colombo, Victor E. et al. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 23, Issue 6, 1127 1132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(90)70345-I

    Trüeb RM. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss. Int J Trichology. 2016;8(2):73-77. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.188040

    Floersheim G. L. (1989). Behandlung brüchiger Fingernägel mit Biotin [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Zeitschrift fur Hautkrankheiten, 64(1), 4148. PMID: 2648686

    Hochman, L. G., Scher, R. K., & Meyerson, M. S. (1993). Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51(4), 303305. PMID: 8477615

    Scheinfeld, N., Dahdah, M. J., & Scher, R. (2007). Vitamins and minerals: their role in nail health and disease. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 6(8), 782787. PMID: 17763607

    Keratin

    Gavazzoni Dias MF. Hair cosmetics: an overview. Int J Trichology. 2015;7(1):215. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.153450

    Bragulla HH, Homberger DG. Structure and functions of keratin proteins in simple, stratified, keratinized and cornified epithelia. J Anat. 2009;214(4):516559. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01066.x

    Basit A, Asghar F, Sadaf S, Akhtar MW. Health improvement of human hair and their reshaping using recombinant keratin K31. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2018;20:e00288. Published 2018 Oct 24. doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00288

    Villa, A.L.V., Aragão, M.R.S., dos Santos, E.P. et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol 13, 15 (2013). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Narda, Mridvika & Aladren, Sonia & Cestone, Enza & Nobile, Vincenzo. (2017). Efficacy and Safety of a Food Supplement Containing L-cystine, Serenoa repens Extract and Biotin for Hair Loss in Healthy Males and Females. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Cosmetology & Trichology. DOI: 10.4172/2471-9323.1000127

    Sando, L., Kim, M., Colgrave, M.L., Ramshaw, J.A.M., Werkmeister, J.A. and Elvin, C.M. (2010), Photochemical crosslinking of soluble wool keratins produces a mechanically stable biomaterial that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 95A: 901-911. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.32913

    Villa AL, Aragão MR, Dos Santos EP, et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:15. Published 2013 Feb 18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing, Suppl, S6S11. DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.sup12.s6

    Collins N. (2004). Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix. Advances in skin & wound care, 17(3), 109112. DOI: 10.1097/00129334-200404000-00010

    Ronchetti, I. P., Quaglino, D., Jr, & Bergamini, G. (1996). Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 25, 249264. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_13

    Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., & Grenier, J. F. (1996). Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. European surgical research. Europaische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales europeennes, 28(4), 306314. DOI: 10.1159/000129471

    Hallberg, L., Brune, M., & Rossander, L. (1989). The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Supplement = Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Supplement, 30, 103108. PMID: 2507689

    Lynch, S. R., & Cook, J. D. (1980). Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 355, 3244. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x

    Teucher, B., Olivares, M., & Cori, H. (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition, 74(6), 403419. DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.403

    Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. DOI: 10.3390/nu9111211

    Ströhle, A., & Hahn, A. (2009). Vitamin C und Immunfunktion [Vitamin C and immune function]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 32(2), 4956. PMID: 19263912

    Maheu, E., Rannou, F., & Reginster, J. Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 45(4 Suppl), S28S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2015.11.008

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing, Suppl, S6S11. DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.sup12.s6

    Collins N. (2004). Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix. Advances in skin & wound care, 17(3), 109112. DOI: 10.1097/00129334-200404000-00010

    Ronchetti, I. P., Quaglino, D., Jr, & Bergamini, G. (1996). Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 25, 249264. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_13

    Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., & Grenier, J. F. (1996). Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. European surgical research. Europaische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales europeennes, 28(4), 306314. DOI: 10.1159/000129471

    Hallberg, L., Brune, M., & Rossander, L. (1989). The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Supplement = Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Supplement, 30, 103108. PMID: 2507689

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    Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. DOI: 10.3390/nu9111211

    Ströhle, A., & Hahn, A. (2009). Vitamin C und Immunfunktion [Vitamin C and immune function]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 32(2), 4956. PMID: 19263912

    Maheu, E., Rannou, F., & Reginster, J. Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 45(4 Suppl), S28S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2015.11.008

    Supplement Facts

    Ingredients

    Suggested Use

    References

    Product Details

    • 5 types of hydrolyzed collagen powder (type I, II, III, V & X)
    • 5 food sources of collagen peptides including grass-fed hydrolyzed bovine collagen, organic chicken bone broth, organic beef bone broth. wild caught white fish collagen and eggshell collagens
    • 10,000 mcg biotin
    • Hydrolyzed keratin
    • Vitamin B6, vitamin C & vitamin D3
    • Hyaluronic acid and niacin
    • Pantothenic acid
    • 18 amino acids
    • Non-GMO
    • Unflavored
    • Zero carbs
    • Dairy, soy, gluten, shellfish, and oil-free
    • Pure of artificial flavors, colors, or additives
    • Designed for men and women
    • Third-party tested
    • Manufactured in the USA in a cGMP-certified facility

    Featured Ingredients

    Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen

    Types 1 & 3 collagen

    Organic Chicken Bone Broth

    Type 2 collagen

    Biotin

    10,000 mcg

    Keratin

    500 mg

    Vitamin C, D & Hyaluronic Acid

    + Niacin, vitamin B6 & pantothenic acid

    Beauty formulation in a collagen powder

    You don’t name a formula “platinum” lightly. You do so only when it truly deserves it. In this case, we believe it does. Why? Because we’ve combined our very best ingredients into one collagen solution. And that's a platinum choice.

    Suggested use

    Adults mix 1 scoop daily of Codeage Multi Collagen Platinum Edition powder with 8 ounces of your favorite beverage, coffee, smoothies & baked treats to upgrade your diet. Do not exceed recommended dose.

    See caution

    CAUTION: Do not exceed recommended dose. Please use caution if you have allergies or sensitivities to any of the listed ingredients. Pregnant or nursing mothers and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any dietary supplement. Use only as directed. Some people might experience slight intolerance to marine or bovine product. If gastrointestinal discomfort (including bloating, cramps, diarrhea, or other digestive upset) or other sensitivity is experienced stop taking the product immediately. Some people are allergic to bovine (beef) or fish. If you are pregnant, nursing, or have a medical condition, please consult with your physician before use. If you have any questions about consuming this dietary supplement, consult with your health care professional before using. If you use prescription drugs or over-the-counter medications, are unaware of your current medical condition or have a pre-existing medical condition(s), consult with your health care professional before using. Discontinue use immediately if you experience any adverse symptoms or reactions while taking this product. Discontinue use 2 weeks prior to surgery. Do not use if your health status is unknown. Do not use if safety seal is damaged or missing. Keep out of reach of children and pets. Store in a cool, dry place, away from heat moisture. Biotin can be received in adequate or extra amounts from food and regular diet only. Use this product as a food supplement only. Do not use for weight reduction.

    Additional Details

    Beauty formulation in a collagen powder

    You don’t name a formula “platinum” lightly. You do so only when it truly deserves it. In this case, we believe it does. Why? Because we’ve combined our very best ingredients into one collagen solution. And that's a platinum choice.

    See all ingredients

    Ingredients:

    Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid), Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol), Niacin (as Niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid (as D-Calcium Pantothenate), Multi-Collagen Complex: Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen Peptides (BSE-free), Organic Chicken Bone Broth, Organic Beef Bone Broth (BSE-free), Wild-Caught Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen Peptides, Eggshell Membrane Collagen, Hydrolyzed Keratin, Hyaluronic Acid (as Sodium Hyaluronate).

    Amino acid profile (average milligrams per serving): Alanine 867 mg, Arginine 737 mg, Aspartic Acid 558 mg, Glutamic Acid 979 mg, Glycine 2334 mg, Histidine 73 mg, Hydroxylysine 85 mg, Hydroxyproline 1134 mg, Isoleucine 149 mg, Leucine 285 mg, Lysine 358 mg, Methionine 86 mg, Phenylalanine 189 mg, Proline 1354 mg, Serine 325 mg, Threonine 177 mg, Tyrosine 50 mg, Valine 220 mg. Average milligrams per serving naturally occurring; absolute values may vary. Contains 8 of 9 essential amino acids. Not a significant source of protein. Collagen protein does not count toward the FDA recommended Percent Daily Value for protein because it lacks one essential amino acid: tryptophan. Packaged by weight, not volume. Settling may occur.

    Pairs With

    References

    Biotin: an essential B vitamin involved in a number of specific biological reactions responsible for the metabolism of fats, glucose and amino acids

    Biotin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.  NIH.  https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C: antioxidant support, collagen synthesis, skin & hair health

    See more

    One of vitamin Cs essential functions is to serve as an antioxidant, protecting the body from excessive oxidation.  Vitamin C plays a pivotal role in the regeneration of vitamin E, another important antioxidant.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C is required to support synthesis of collagen in the body.  Collagen is the major component of the bodys connective tissue.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C supports skin health in two ways: as an antioxidant and as a required cofactor for production of collagen in the body.  References for these roles are provided above.

    Skin dermal and epidermal layers contain relatively high amounts of vitamin C.  Age and UV exposure can reduce tissue levels.

    Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-C

    Vitamin D, from diet and production within the skin, play a vital role in skin health.  More specifically, vitamin D in skin plays a critical role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, the cells responsible for producing the structural protein keratin. This process ensures normal cell growth and maintains the skin barrier. Vitamin D has also been shown to be involved in maintaining the growth cycle of mature hair follicles.

    Vitamin D.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin D and Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University.  https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-D

    Vitamin B6: essential in the metabolism of protein, fat, carbohydrates

    Vitamin B6 is found in 6 forms all of which can be utilized.  Two forms, Pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5 phosphate (PMP) are the active coenzyme forms of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, primarily concerned with protein metabolism. Both PLP and PMP are involved in amino acid metabolism, and PLP is also involved in the metabolism of one-carbon units, carbohydrates, and lipids 

    Vitamin B6.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb6-healthprofessional/

    Pantothenic acid: essential in fatty acid metabolism

    The primary functions of Pantothenic acid involve the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein, both of which are involved in the metabolism of fatty acids.

    Pantothenic acid. Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/PantothenicAcid-HealthProfessional/

    Hydrolyzed keratin protein: a source of amino acids used by the body form new protein

    Keratin is a major structural protein in hair and nails.

    Composition of hair and nails ( and overview of conditions):

    J McKittrick, PY Chen, SG Bodde, W Yang The structure, functions, and mechanical properties of keratin.- Jom, 2012

    http://meyersgroup.ucsd.edu/papers/journals/Meyers%20354.pdf

    P Grinzi. Hair and nails.  - Australian Family Physician, 2011

    https://www.racgp.org.au/getattachment/065396cf-bb0c-4fd6-99fb-63fa5a3770b1/Hair-and-nails.aspx

    Hyaluronic acid: joint & skin health

    HA supports joint lubrication. Several human studies in persons who are healthy as well as those with osteoarthritis, experienced reduction in knee pain following ingestion of oral HA.  Various daily doses were studied (80 mg-630 mg) and all showed benefit. (The complex molecule hyaluronan is found in the joint space where if lubricates and cushions joints.)

    Oe M, Tashiro T, Yoshida H, Nishiyama H, Masuda Y, Maruyama K, Koikeda T, Maruya R, Fukui N. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutr J. 2016 Jan 27;15:11. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0128-2. PMID: 26818459; PMCID: PMC4729158.

    HA supports skin hydration. Hyaluronic acid is a building block of hyaluronan, a complex molecule found in the extracellular matrix of tissues such as skin, eye and joints.  It plays a role in lubrication of joints and is important in maintaining skin moisture. 

    Oral supplementation with HA has been shown in at least 6 human studies to improve skin moisture content.  These studies have been reviewed by Kawada et al.  Studies examined a range of doses (37.5 mg HA per day to 240 mg HA per day-3 studies at 120 mg HA per day). The consumption period ranged from 4 to 12 weeks, with all time periods showing benefit.

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, Matsuoka R, Sakamoto W, Odanaka W, Sato T, Yamasaki T, Kanemitsu T, Masuda Y, Urushibata O. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014 Jul 11;13:70. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70. PMID: 25014997; PMCID: PMC4110621.

    Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen

    Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing Skin Health: By Oral Administration of Natural Compounds and Minerals with Implications to the Dermal Microbiome. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(10):3059. Published 2018 Oct 7. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103059

    Saha A, Alam MJ, Ashraf KU, Mannan A. Computational analysis of bovine alpha-1 collagen sequences. Bioinformation. 2013;9(1):4248. doi: 10.6026/97320630009042

    León-López A, Morales-Peñaloza A, Martínez-Juárez VM, Vargas-Torres A, Zeugolis DI, Aguirre-Álvarez G. Hydrolyzed Collagen-Sources and Applications. Molecules. 2019;24(22):4031. Published 2019 Nov 7. doi: 10.3390/molecules24224031

    K. Henriksen, M.A. Karsdal, in Biochemistry of Collagens, Laminins and Elastin, 2016

    Albaugh VL, Mukherjee K, Barbul A. Proline Precursors and Collagen Synthesis: Biochemical Challenges of Nutrient Supplementation and Wound Healing. J Nutr. 2017;147(11):20112017. doi:10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Avila Rodríguez, MI, Rodríguez Barroso, LG, Sánchez, ML. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications. J Cosmet. Dermatol. 2018; 17: 20 26. DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12450

    Paul C, Leser S, Oesser S. Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1079. Published 2019 May 15.  doi: 10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 27(1), 4755. DOI: 10.1159/000351376

    Zdzieblik D, Oesser S, Baumstark MW, Gollhofer A, König D. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(8):12371245. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002810

    Organic Chicken Bone Broth

    Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6(6):312321. Published 2009 Oct 9. doi: 10.7150/ijms.6.312

    Bakilan F, Armagan O, Ozgen M, Tascioglu F, Bolluk O, Alatas O. Effects of Native Type II Collagen Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Eurasian J Med. 2016;48(2):95101. doi: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2015.15030

    Lugo, J.P., Saiyed, Z.M. & Lane, N.E. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 15, 14 (2015). DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0130-8

    Bagchi, D., Misner, B., Bagchi, M., Kothari, S. C., Downs, B. W., Fafard, R. D., & Preuss, H. G. (2002). Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration. International journal of clinical pharmacology research, 22(3-4), 101110.

    Zhu, P., Li, X. Y., Wang, H. K., Jia, J. F., Zheng, Z. H., Ding, J., & Fan, C. M. (2007). Oral administration of type-II collagen peptide 250-270 suppresses specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 122(1), 7584. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2006.08.004

    Barnett, M. L., Kremer, J. M., St Clair, E. W., Clegg, D. O., Furst, D., Weisman, M., Fletcher, M. J., Chasan-Taber, S., Finger, E., Morales, A., Le, C. H., & Trentham, D. E. (1998). Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis and rheumatism, 41(2), 290297. DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199802)41:2<290::AID-ART13>3.0.CO;2-R

    Yoshinari, O., Moriyama, H., & Shiojima, Y. (2015). An overview of a novel, water-soluble undenatured type II collagen (NEXT-II). Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 34(3), 255262. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2014.919541

    Paul, C., Leser, S., & Oesser, S. (2019). Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients, 11(5), 1079. DOI: 10.3390/nu11051079

    Darling, A. L., Manders, R., Sahni, S., Zhu, K., Hewitt, C. E., Prince, R. L., Millward, D. J., & Lanham-New, S. A. (2019). Dietary protein and bone health across the life-course: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis over 40 years. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 30(4), 741761. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-019-04933-8

    Lerman, R. H., Chang, J. L., Konda, V., Desai, A., & Montalto, M. B. (2015). Nutritional Approach for Relief of Joint Discomfort: A 12-week, Open-case Series and Illustrative Case Report. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 14(5), 5261. PMCID: PMC4712866

    Biotin

    Glynis A. A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of an Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(11):28-34. PMID: 23198010

    Janos Zempleni, Yousef I Hassan & Subhashinee SK Wijeratne (2008) Biotin and biotinidase deficiency, Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3:6, 715-724, DOI: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    S. Daniells and G. Hardy, Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 690697, November 2010. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833ece02

    Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Sparavigna A, Tenconi B, La Penna L. Efficacy and tolerability of a biomineral formulation for treatment of onychoschizia: a randomized trial. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019;12:355362. Published 2019 May 13. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S187305

    Lipner, S. R., & Scher, R. K. (2018). Biotin for the treatment of nail disease: what is the evidence?. The Journal of dermatological treatment, 29(4), 411414. DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1395799

    Victor E. Colombo, Françoise Gerber, Max Bronhofer, George L. Floersheim. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. Colombo, Victor E. et al. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 23, Issue 6, 1127 1132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(90)70345-I

    Trüeb RM. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss. Int J Trichology. 2016;8(2):73-77. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.188040

    Floersheim G. L. (1989). Behandlung brüchiger Fingernägel mit Biotin [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Zeitschrift fur Hautkrankheiten, 64(1), 4148. PMID: 2648686

    Hochman, L. G., Scher, R. K., & Meyerson, M. S. (1993). Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51(4), 303305. PMID: 8477615

    Scheinfeld, N., Dahdah, M. J., & Scher, R. (2007). Vitamins and minerals: their role in nail health and disease. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 6(8), 782787. PMID: 17763607

    Keratin

    Gavazzoni Dias MF. Hair cosmetics: an overview. Int J Trichology. 2015;7(1):215. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.153450

    Bragulla HH, Homberger DG. Structure and functions of keratin proteins in simple, stratified, keratinized and cornified epithelia. J Anat. 2009;214(4):516559. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01066.x

    Basit A, Asghar F, Sadaf S, Akhtar MW. Health improvement of human hair and their reshaping using recombinant keratin K31. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2018;20:e00288. Published 2018 Oct 24. doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00288

    Villa, A.L.V., Aragão, M.R.S., dos Santos, E.P. et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol 13, 15 (2013). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Narda, Mridvika & Aladren, Sonia & Cestone, Enza & Nobile, Vincenzo. (2017). Efficacy and Safety of a Food Supplement Containing L-cystine, Serenoa repens Extract and Biotin for Hair Loss in Healthy Males and Females. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Cosmetology & Trichology. DOI: 10.4172/2471-9323.1000127

    Sando, L., Kim, M., Colgrave, M.L., Ramshaw, J.A.M., Werkmeister, J.A. and Elvin, C.M. (2010), Photochemical crosslinking of soluble wool keratins produces a mechanically stable biomaterial that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 95A: 901-911. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.32913

    Villa AL, Aragão MR, Dos Santos EP, et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:15. Published 2013 Feb 18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing, Suppl, S6S11. DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.sup12.s6

    Collins N. (2004). Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix. Advances in skin & wound care, 17(3), 109112. DOI: 10.1097/00129334-200404000-00010

    Ronchetti, I. P., Quaglino, D., Jr, & Bergamini, G. (1996). Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 25, 249264. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_13

    Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., & Grenier, J. F. (1996). Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. European surgical research. Europaische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales europeennes, 28(4), 306314. DOI: 10.1159/000129471

    Hallberg, L., Brune, M., & Rossander, L. (1989). The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Supplement = Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Supplement, 30, 103108. PMID: 2507689

    Lynch, S. R., & Cook, J. D. (1980). Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 355, 3244. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x

    Teucher, B., Olivares, M., & Cori, H. (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition, 74(6), 403419. DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.403

    Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. DOI: 10.3390/nu9111211

    Ströhle, A., & Hahn, A. (2009). Vitamin C und Immunfunktion [Vitamin C and immune function]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 32(2), 4956. PMID: 19263912

    Maheu, E., Rannou, F., & Reginster, J. Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 45(4 Suppl), S28S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2015.11.008

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing, Suppl, S6S11. DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.sup12.s6

    Collins N. (2004). Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix. Advances in skin & wound care, 17(3), 109112. DOI: 10.1097/00129334-200404000-00010

    Ronchetti, I. P., Quaglino, D., Jr, & Bergamini, G. (1996). Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 25, 249264. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_13

    Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., & Grenier, J. F. (1996). Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. European surgical research. Europaische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales europeennes, 28(4), 306314. DOI: 10.1159/000129471

    Hallberg, L., Brune, M., & Rossander, L. (1989). The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Supplement = Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Supplement, 30, 103108. PMID: 2507689

    Lynch, S. R., & Cook, J. D. (1980). Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 355, 3244. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x

    Teucher, B., Olivares, M., & Cori, H. (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition, 74(6), 403419. DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.403

    Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. DOI: 10.3390/nu9111211

    Ströhle, A., & Hahn, A. (2009). Vitamin C und Immunfunktion [Vitamin C and immune function]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 32(2), 4956. PMID: 19263912

    Maheu, E., Rannou, F., & Reginster, J. Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 45(4 Suppl), S28S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2015.11.008

    Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid), Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol), Niacin (as Niacinamide), Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxal-5'-Phosphate), Biotin, Pantothenic Acid (as D-Calcium Pantothenate), Multi-Collagen Complex: Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen Peptides (BSE-free), Organic Chicken Bone Broth, Organic Beef Bone Broth (BSE-free), Wild-Caught Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen Peptides, Eggshell Membrane Collagen, Hydrolyzed Keratin, Hyaluronic Acid (as Sodium Hyaluronate).

    Amino acid profile (average milligrams per serving): Alanine 867 mg, Arginine 737 mg, Aspartic Acid 558 mg, Glutamic Acid 979 mg, Glycine 2334 mg, Histidine 73 mg, Hydroxylysine 85 mg, Hydroxyproline 1134 mg, Isoleucine 149 mg, Leucine 285 mg, Lysine 358 mg, Methionine 86 mg, Phenylalanine 189 mg, Proline 1354 mg, Serine 325 mg, Threonine 177 mg, Tyrosine 50 mg, Valine 220 mg. Average milligrams per serving naturally occurring; absolute values may vary. Contains 8 of 9 essential amino acids. Not a significant source of protein. Collagen protein does not count toward the FDA recommended Percent Daily Value for protein because it lacks one essential amino acid: tryptophan. Packaged by weight, not volume. Settling may occur.

    Adults mix 1 scoop daily of Codeage Multi Collagen Platinum Edition powder with 8 ounces of your favorite beverage, coffee, smoothies & baked treats to upgrade your diet. Do not exceed recommended dose.

    CAUTION: Do not exceed recommended dose. Please use caution if you have allergies or sensitivities to any of the listed ingredients. Pregnant or nursing mothers and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before using this or any dietary supplement. Use only as directed. Some people might experience slight intolerance to marine or bovine product. If gastrointestinal discomfort (including bloating, cramps, diarrhea, or other digestive upset) or other sensitivity is experienced stop taking the product immediately. Some people are allergic to bovine (beef) or fish. If you are pregnant, nursing, or have a medical condition, please consult with your physician before use. If you have any questions about consuming this dietary supplement, consult with your health care professional before using. If you use prescription drugs or over-the-counter medications, are unaware of your current medical condition or have a pre-existing medical condition(s), consult with your health care professional before using. Discontinue use immediately if you experience any adverse symptoms or reactions while taking this product. Discontinue use 2 weeks prior to surgery. Do not use if your health status is unknown. Do not use if safety seal is damaged or missing. Keep out of reach of children and pets. Store in a cool, dry place, away from heat moisture. Biotin can be received in adequate or extra amounts from food and regular diet only. Use this product as a food supplement only. Do not use for weight reduction.

    Biotin: an essential B vitamin involved in a number of specific biological reactions responsible for the metabolism of fats, glucose and amino acids

    Biotin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.  NIH.  https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C: antioxidant support, collagen synthesis, skin & hair health

    One of vitamin Cs essential functions is to serve as an antioxidant, protecting the body from excessive oxidation.  Vitamin C plays a pivotal role in the regeneration of vitamin E, another important antioxidant.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C is required to support synthesis of collagen in the body.  Collagen is the major component of the bodys connective tissue.

    Vitamin C.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin C supports skin health in two ways: as an antioxidant and as a required cofactor for production of collagen in the body.  References for these roles are provided above.

    Skin dermal and epidermal layers contain relatively high amounts of vitamin C.  Age and UV exposure can reduce tissue levels.

    Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-C

    Vitamin D, from diet and production within the skin, play a vital role in skin health.  More specifically, vitamin D in skin plays a critical role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, the cells responsible for producing the structural protein keratin. This process ensures normal cell growth and maintains the skin barrier. Vitamin D has also been shown to be involved in maintaining the growth cycle of mature hair follicles.

    Vitamin D.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

    Vitamin D and Skin Health.  Linus Pauling Institute. Oregon State University.  https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-D

    Vitamin B6: essential in the metabolism of protein, fat, carbohydrates

    Vitamin B6 is found in 6 forms all of which can be utilized.  Two forms, Pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5 phosphate (PMP) are the active coenzyme forms of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body, with involvement in more than 100 enzyme reactions, primarily concerned with protein metabolism. Both PLP and PMP are involved in amino acid metabolism, and PLP is also involved in the metabolism of one-carbon units, carbohydrates, and lipids 

    Vitamin B6.  Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb6-healthprofessional/

    Pantothenic acid: essential in fatty acid metabolism

    The primary functions of Pantothenic acid involve the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein, both of which are involved in the metabolism of fatty acids.

    Pantothenic acid. Health Professional Fact Sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/PantothenicAcid-HealthProfessional/

    Hydrolyzed keratin protein: a source of amino acids used by the body form new protein

    Keratin is a major structural protein in hair and nails.

    Composition of hair and nails ( and overview of conditions):

    J McKittrick, PY Chen, SG Bodde, W Yang The structure, functions, and mechanical properties of keratin.- Jom, 2012

    http://meyersgroup.ucsd.edu/papers/journals/Meyers%20354.pdf

    P Grinzi. Hair and nails.  - Australian Family Physician, 2011

    https://www.racgp.org.au/getattachment/065396cf-bb0c-4fd6-99fb-63fa5a3770b1/Hair-and-nails.aspx

    Hyaluronic acid: joint & skin health

    HA supports joint lubrication. Several human studies in persons who are healthy as well as those with osteoarthritis, experienced reduction in knee pain following ingestion of oral HA.  Various daily doses were studied (80 mg-630 mg) and all showed benefit. (The complex molecule hyaluronan is found in the joint space where if lubricates and cushions joints.)

    Oe M, Tashiro T, Yoshida H, Nishiyama H, Masuda Y, Maruyama K, Koikeda T, Maruya R, Fukui N. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutr J. 2016 Jan 27;15:11. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0128-2. PMID: 26818459; PMCID: PMC4729158.

    HA supports skin hydration. Hyaluronic acid is a building block of hyaluronan, a complex molecule found in the extracellular matrix of tissues such as skin, eye and joints.  It plays a role in lubrication of joints and is important in maintaining skin moisture. 

    Oral supplementation with HA has been shown in at least 6 human studies to improve skin moisture content.  These studies have been reviewed by Kawada et al.  Studies examined a range of doses (37.5 mg HA per day to 240 mg HA per day-3 studies at 120 mg HA per day). The consumption period ranged from 4 to 12 weeks, with all time periods showing benefit.

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, Matsuoka R, Sakamoto W, Odanaka W, Sato T, Yamasaki T, Kanemitsu T, Masuda Y, Urushibata O. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014 Jul 11;13:70. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70. PMID: 25014997; PMCID: PMC4110621.

    Grass-Fed Hydrolyzed Bovine Collagen

    Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing Skin Health: By Oral Administration of Natural Compounds and Minerals with Implications to the Dermal Microbiome. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(10):3059. Published 2018 Oct 7. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103059

    Saha A, Alam MJ, Ashraf KU, Mannan A. Computational analysis of bovine alpha-1 collagen sequences. Bioinformation. 2013;9(1):4248. doi: 10.6026/97320630009042

    León-López A, Morales-Peñaloza A, Martínez-Juárez VM, Vargas-Torres A, Zeugolis DI, Aguirre-Álvarez G. Hydrolyzed Collagen-Sources and Applications. Molecules. 2019;24(22):4031. Published 2019 Nov 7. doi: 10.3390/molecules24224031

    K. Henriksen, M.A. Karsdal, in Biochemistry of Collagens, Laminins and Elastin, 2016

    Albaugh VL, Mukherjee K, Barbul A. Proline Precursors and Collagen Synthesis: Biochemical Challenges of Nutrient Supplementation and Wound Healing. J Nutr. 2017;147(11):20112017. doi:10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Avila Rodríguez, MI, Rodríguez Barroso, LG, Sánchez, ML. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications. J Cosmet. Dermatol. 2018; 17: 20 26. DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12450

    Paul C, Leser S, Oesser S. Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1079. Published 2019 May 15.  doi: 10.3945/jn.117.256404

    Proksch, E., Segger, D., Degwert, J., Schunck, M., Zague, V., & Oesser, S. (2014). Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 27(1), 4755. DOI: 10.1159/000351376

    Zdzieblik D, Oesser S, Baumstark MW, Gollhofer A, König D. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2015;114(8):12371245. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002810

    Organic Chicken Bone Broth

    Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6(6):312321. Published 2009 Oct 9. doi: 10.7150/ijms.6.312

    Bakilan F, Armagan O, Ozgen M, Tascioglu F, Bolluk O, Alatas O. Effects of Native Type II Collagen Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Eurasian J Med. 2016;48(2):95101. doi: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2015.15030

    Lugo, J.P., Saiyed, Z.M. & Lane, N.E. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 15, 14 (2015). DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0130-8

    Bagchi, D., Misner, B., Bagchi, M., Kothari, S. C., Downs, B. W., Fafard, R. D., & Preuss, H. G. (2002). Effects of orally administered undenatured type II collagen against arthritic inflammatory diseases: a mechanistic exploration. International journal of clinical pharmacology research, 22(3-4), 101110.

    Zhu, P., Li, X. Y., Wang, H. K., Jia, J. F., Zheng, Z. H., Ding, J., & Fan, C. M. (2007). Oral administration of type-II collagen peptide 250-270 suppresses specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 122(1), 7584. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2006.08.004

    Barnett, M. L., Kremer, J. M., St Clair, E. W., Clegg, D. O., Furst, D., Weisman, M., Fletcher, M. J., Chasan-Taber, S., Finger, E., Morales, A., Le, C. H., & Trentham, D. E. (1998). Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis and rheumatism, 41(2), 290297. DOI: 10.1002/1529-0131(199802)41:2<290::AID-ART13>3.0.CO;2-R

    Yoshinari, O., Moriyama, H., & Shiojima, Y. (2015). An overview of a novel, water-soluble undenatured type II collagen (NEXT-II). Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 34(3), 255262. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2014.919541

    Paul, C., Leser, S., & Oesser, S. (2019). Significant Amounts of Functional Collagen Peptides Can Be Incorporated in the Diet While Maintaining Indispensable Amino Acid Balance. Nutrients, 11(5), 1079. DOI: 10.3390/nu11051079

    Darling, A. L., Manders, R., Sahni, S., Zhu, K., Hewitt, C. E., Prince, R. L., Millward, D. J., & Lanham-New, S. A. (2019). Dietary protein and bone health across the life-course: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis over 40 years. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 30(4), 741761. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-019-04933-8

    Lerman, R. H., Chang, J. L., Konda, V., Desai, A., & Montalto, M. B. (2015). Nutritional Approach for Relief of Joint Discomfort: A 12-week, Open-case Series and Illustrative Case Report. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 14(5), 5261. PMCID: PMC4712866

    Biotin

    Glynis A. A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy of an Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(11):28-34. PMID: 23198010

    Janos Zempleni, Yousef I Hassan & Subhashinee SK Wijeratne (2008) Biotin and biotinidase deficiency, Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3:6, 715-724, DOI: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    Patel DP, Swink SM, Castelo-Soccio L. A Review of the Use of Biotin for Hair Loss. Skin Appendage Disord. 2017;3(3):166169. doi: 10.1159/000462981

    S. Daniells and G. Hardy, Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 690697, November 2010. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833ece02

    Zempleni J, Hassan YI, Wijeratne SS. Biotin and biotinidase deficiency. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    2008;3(6):715724. doi: 10.1586/17446651.3.6.715

    Sparavigna A, Tenconi B, La Penna L. Efficacy and tolerability of a biomineral formulation for treatment of onychoschizia: a randomized trial. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2019;12:355362. Published 2019 May 13. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S187305

    Lipner, S. R., & Scher, R. K. (2018). Biotin for the treatment of nail disease: what is the evidence?. The Journal of dermatological treatment, 29(4), 411414. DOI: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1395799

    Victor E. Colombo, Françoise Gerber, Max Bronhofer, George L. Floersheim. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: Scanning electron microscopy. Colombo, Victor E. et al. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 23, Issue 6, 1127 1132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(90)70345-I

    Trüeb RM. Serum Biotin Levels in Women Complaining of Hair Loss. Int J Trichology. 2016;8(2):73-77. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.188040

    Floersheim G. L. (1989). Behandlung brüchiger Fingernägel mit Biotin [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Zeitschrift fur Hautkrankheiten, 64(1), 4148. PMID: 2648686

    Hochman, L. G., Scher, R. K., & Meyerson, M. S. (1993). Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis, 51(4), 303305. PMID: 8477615

    Scheinfeld, N., Dahdah, M. J., & Scher, R. (2007). Vitamins and minerals: their role in nail health and disease. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 6(8), 782787. PMID: 17763607

    Keratin

    Gavazzoni Dias MF. Hair cosmetics: an overview. Int J Trichology. 2015;7(1):215. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.153450

    Bragulla HH, Homberger DG. Structure and functions of keratin proteins in simple, stratified, keratinized and cornified epithelia. J Anat. 2009;214(4):516559. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01066.x

    Basit A, Asghar F, Sadaf S, Akhtar MW. Health improvement of human hair and their reshaping using recombinant keratin K31. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2018;20:e00288. Published 2018 Oct 24. doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00288

    Villa, A.L.V., Aragão, M.R.S., dos Santos, E.P. et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol 13, 15 (2013). DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Narda, Mridvika & Aladren, Sonia & Cestone, Enza & Nobile, Vincenzo. (2017). Efficacy and Safety of a Food Supplement Containing L-cystine, Serenoa repens Extract and Biotin for Hair Loss in Healthy Males and Females. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blinded, Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Cosmetology & Trichology. DOI: 10.4172/2471-9323.1000127

    Sando, L., Kim, M., Colgrave, M.L., Ramshaw, J.A.M., Werkmeister, J.A. and Elvin, C.M. (2010), Photochemical crosslinking of soluble wool keratins produces a mechanically stable biomaterial that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 95A: 901-911. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.32913

    Villa AL, Aragão MR, Dos Santos EP, et al. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:15. Published 2013 Feb 18. doi: 10.1186/1472-6750-13-15

    Vitamin C & Hyaluronic Acid

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective. British journal of community nursing, Suppl, S6S11. DOI: 10.12968/bjcn.2013.18.sup12.s6

    Collins N. (2004). Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix. Advances in skin & wound care, 17(3), 109112. DOI: 10.1097/00129334-200404000-00010

    Ronchetti, I. P., Quaglino, D., Jr, & Bergamini, G. (1996). Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Sub-cellular biochemistry, 25, 249264. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_13

    Vaxman, F., Olender, S., Lambert, A., Nisand, G., & Grenier, J. F. (1996). Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans. European surgical research. Europaische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales europeennes, 28(4), 306314. DOI: 10.1159/000129471

    Hallberg, L., Brune, M., & Rossander, L. (1989). The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Supplement = Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Supplement, 30, 103108. PMID: 2507689

    Lynch, S. R., & Cook, J. D. (1980). Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 355, 3244. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x

    Teucher, B., Olivares, M., & Cori, H. (2004). Enhancers of iron absorption: ascorbic acid and other organic acids. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition, 74(6), 403419. DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.74.6.403

    Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. DOI: 10.3390/nu9111211

    Ströhle, A., & Hahn, A. (2009). Vitamin C und Immunfunktion [Vitamin C and immune function]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 32(2), 4956. PMID: 19263912

    Maheu, E., Rannou, F., & Reginster, J. Y. (2016). Efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 45(4 Suppl), S28S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2015.11.008

    Dincel YM, Adanir O, Arikan Y, Caglar AK, Dogru SC, Arslan YZ. EFFECTS OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN C AND HYALURONIC ACID ON TENDON HEALING. Acta Ortop Bras. 2018;26(2):8285. doi: 10.1590/1413-785220182602182353

    Papakonstantinou E, Roth M, Karakiulakis G. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(3):253258. doi: 10.4161/derm.21923

    Oe M, Sakai S, Yoshida H, et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2017;10:267273. Published 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S141845

    Jegasothy SM, Zabolotniaia V, Bielfeldt S. Efficacy of a New Topical Nano-hyaluronic Acid in Humans. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014;7(3):2729. PMID: 24688623

    Gupta RC, Lall R, Srivastava A, Sinha A. Hyaluronic Acid: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Trajectory. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:192. Published 2019 Jun 25. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00192

    Kawada C, Yoshida T, Yoshida H, et al. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin. Nutr J. 2014;13:70. Published 2014 Jul 11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-70

    Bowman S, Awad ME, Hamrick MW, Hunter M, Fulzele S. Recent advances in hyaluronic acid based therapy for osteoarthritis. Clin Transl Med. 2018;7(1):6. Published 2018 Feb 16. doi: 10.1186/s40169-017-0180-3

    Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928. doi: 10.1100/2012/167928

    Altman, R., Hackel, J., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Nicholls, M. (2018). Efficacy and safety of repeated courses of hyaluronic acid injections for knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, 48(2), 168175. DOI: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.01.009

    Concoff, A., Sancheti, P., Niazi, F., Shaw, P., & Rosen, J. (2017). The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 18(1), 542. DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1897-2

    Altman, R. D., Bedi, A., Karlsson, J., Sancheti, P., & Schemitsch, E. (2016). Product Differences in Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acids for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. The American journal of sports medicine, 44(8), 21582165. DOI: 10.1177/0363546515609599

    Witteveen, A. G., Hofstad, C. J., & Kerkhoffs, G. M. (2015). Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (10), CD010643. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010643.pub2

    Wu M, Cronin K, Crane JS. Biochemistry, Collagen Synthesis. [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. 

    Boyera, N., Galey, I., & Bernard, B. A. (1998). Effect of vitamin C and its derivatives on collagen synthesis and cross-linking by normal human fibroblasts. International journal of cosmetic science, 20(3), 151158. DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-2494.1998.171747.x

    Lis, D. M., & Baar, K. (2019). Effects of Different Vitamin C-Enriched Collagen Derivatives on Collagen Synthesis. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 29(5), 526531. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0385

    Kleszczewska E. (2007). Biologiczne znaczenie witaminy C ze szczególnym z uwzglednieniem jej znaczenia w metabolizmie skóry [Biological role and importance in the skin metabolism of vitamin C]. Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 23(138), 462465. PMID: 18432133

    DePhillipo NN, Aman ZS, Kennedy MI, Begley JP, Moatshe G, LaPrade RF. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplementation on Collagen Synthesis and Oxidative Stress After Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Systematic Review. Orthop J Sports Med. 2018;6(10):2325967118804544. Published 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.1177/2325967118804544

    Moores J. (2013). Vitamin C: a wound healing perspective.