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Multivitamin Supplements: Beyond the Surface

Multivitamin Supplements: Beyond the Surface

This article tells you everything you need to know about supplements, with easy-to-understand scientific & research-based information covering the following points:

  1. What are dietary supplements?

  2. What are multivitamin supplements (MVS)?

  3. 10 reasons why you should take multivitamins

  4. Additional facts about supplements

  5. What to look for when choosing multivitamins

  6. About Codeage Supplements

  7. Multivitamin supplement ingredients

    • Classification of Nutrients (macro and micro)

  8. How to consume multivitamin supplements and at what time

    • Do's & Don'ts

  9. Conclusion

  10. References

Dietary supplements

What are dietary supplements?

According to the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994, a dietary supplement is a product that

  • is intended to supplement a diet;

  • contains one or more dietary ingredients and their constituents (including vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances);

  • is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; and

  • is labeled as a dietary supplement on the bottle front.

What are multivitamin supplements (MVS)?

Multivitamins supplements are a combination of vitamins and minerals.

They also have other important functional nutrients like omega, probiotics, digestive enzymes, collagen, phytochemicals, etc.

They become necessary when nutritional requirements are not met through a diet alone.

There's no standard amount of ingredients and multivitamins — their nutrient composition differs from product to product.

10 reasons why you should take multivitamins 

Multivitamins provide essential vitamins and minerals that play a proactive role in supporting the body's natural defense system, filling in the nutritional void created by a 21st-century lifestyle.

Here are 10 reasons why all of us may need to take an adequate amount of high-quality supplements for a healthy life:

  1. Having a busy lifestyle that includes eating on the run

  2. Fad diets, skipping meals, or overeating

  3. Constant consumption of junk and processed food

  4. Leading a sedentary lifestyle that results in poor digestion and absorption

  5. Smoking, drinking and consuming tobacco

  6. Excessive use of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, bactericides)

  7. Harmful toxins in the air like dust, fumes, smoke, gaseous pollutants, and hydrocarbons due to air pollution

  8. Eating commercially produced fruits & vegetables that are sprayed and waxed, making them loaded with harmful synthetic chemicals

  9. Poor soil quality – if essential nutrients aren't in the soil, they're not in you

  10. Modern medicine – these generally deplete your nutrient stores and lead to varying degrees of nutrient deficiencies & health concerns like circulatory problems, cognitive impairments, dandruff, depression, insomnia, irritability, fatigue, infections, low energy levels, etc.

Other than the inadequacy of safe and quality food, multivitamins are also consumed by people who:

  • don't have a balanced diet or have a poor appetite (anorexia nervosa)

  • have malabsorption syndrome (celiac disease, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis)

  • have been on medications like diuretics, antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, and anti-depression/anxiety drugs for a long time

  • have undergone gastric bypass surgery for weight loss

  • have been on a liquid diet due to surgery

  • have temporarily increased nutrient needs during adolescence, pregnancy, and before conceiving

  • are older adults as the absorption of B12 and synthesis of Vitamin D decreases

  • are vegans & vegetarians (B12 is mainly found in animal products, and they could be deficient in vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc)

Multivitamins mainly fulfill your requirement for essential nutrients and fill in the nutritional gaps in your diet. Always consult with your doctor before using any supplements.

Take multivitamin supplements

Additional facts about supplements:

  • Multivitamin-mineral supplements are one the most common dietary supplements used by adults in all age groups, followed by vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid products.

  • A multivitamin supplement is taken by an estimated one-third of all adults in the United States, while one-quarter of children and adolescents take multivitamin-mineral or multi-micronutrient supplements.

  • Among the adults aged 20 and over in the U.S., 57.6% used dietary supplements in the past 30 days, and the use was higher amongst women (63.8%) than men (50.8%).

What to look for when choosing multivitamins

Multivitamins reap many benefits. Consumers must educate themselves about the knowledge of nutrition & supplementation so that they can make informed choices that are right for them. Educating oneself about the nutrition facts panel is important for each consumer and gives them the power to decide what is right for them.

Here's what you should keep in mind before buying multivitamins or any other dietary supplements:

Daily value:

The amount of multivitamin one takes in a day should follow the daily requirement as given by USDA* and /or what is recommend by a doctor for specific situations.

Vegan-friendly:

When your supplement is vegan-friendly (plant-based), it may help provide with the presence of important phytonutrients and phytochemicals that might be missing from other supplements that are made solely from synthetic sources.

According to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 2007, an omega-3 fatty acid is the most used dietary supplement by adult Americans.

Vegan Nutrition

Non-GMO:

Non-GMO stands for Non-Genetically Modified Organisms. The ingredients of these multivitamin are not derived from GMOs and are produced without genetic engineering.

According to the Center for Food Safety, a non-profit organization based in the U.S.,

“Each genetic insertion creates the added possibility that formerly non-toxic elements in the food could become toxic.”

The group says that resistance to antibiotics and a suppressed immune system are among the potential risks of genetic modification using viral DNA.*

Possible sources of adverse health effects from GM foods:

  • The GM transformation process may produce mutagenic effects that can result in non-desirable changes in composition, including toxins, allergens, and/or disturbed nutritional value

  • The use of a GMO may result in toxic residues. For example, GM crops are often sprayed with herbicides, which can cause a number of ailments

This is why it's best to stick to multivitamins that are made as naturally as possible, rather than being processed or modified.

Dietary supplements 3rd party tested

Third-party tested:

This means that the supplement has been tested in an outside lab, apart from in-house labs, for quality assurance. There are a multitude of tests than can be performed on a supplement. One of most commons third-party test is to test for the concentration of heavy metals.

Third-party certifications verify your multivitamin supplements as high-quality.

Free from allergens:

  • Gluten-free

Research shows that 6-7% of the U.S. population may have gluten intolerance, which means around 20 million people in the United States have this condition.

If your supplements are certified to be gluten-free, they can result in higher energy levels and fewer digestive problems.

  • Dairy-free

Lactose intolerance is “an impaired ability to digest lactose, a disaccharide sugar found in milk and other dairy products,” according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

It's safer to buy dairy-free supplements as lactose intolerance is very common among adults, affecting almost 70-80% of the US population.

Jordan Summers-Marcouillier, the author of “Surprising Side Effects of Giving Up Milk", says:

“Adults do not need milk. Milk is not an essential ingredient in adult diets and these days many substitutes are fortified with calcium and other vitamins you may have regularly gotten from milk."

  • Soy-free

Most of the soy produced in the U.S. is genetically modified and might be loaded with chemicals. Taking soy-free supplements not only helps you to dodge harmful synthetic compounds but might also aid in a different absorption of minerals.*

Daily Multivitamins

cGMP facility:

Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMPs) is an important regulation for factories, plants, and manufacturers.

The 'c' in cGMP stands for 'current' and requires companies to use technologies and systems that are up to date.

According to the FDA, compliance with the CGMP regulations may help assure solid identity, strength, quality, and purity of products.

Country of manufacturing:

Last but not the least, the country of manufacturing is one of the most important factors to look out for when choosing multivitamins.

It refers to the country from which the goods are manufactured Some ingredients can be sourced in the United States while others can or must be imported from other countries because they are grown in different countries and geographical conditions.

Codeage: another take of what is the best multivitamins 

Did you know that Codeage offers multivitamins for both men & women?

At Codeage, both our men and women multivitamin supplements formula in a capsule format are vegan-friendly, soy, dairy, and gluten-free. 

 Vitamin C

Multivitamin supplement ingredients

Before learning about the plethora of nutrients, how they work, and food sources, let's start with the basics — what is a nutrient?

Nutrient

A nutrient is a chemical substance, inherently present in numerous food sources, that the body uses to obtain energy, build tissues and regulate biological functions.

The 6 essential nutrients:

  1. Carbohydrates

  2. Proteins

  3. Lipids

  4. Vitamins

  5. Minerals

  6. Water

Classification of nutrients based on the amount required by the body:

Nutrients have been divided into two categories:

  1. Macronutrients

    • Required in large quantities, generally in grams.

      e.g. carbohydrates, lipids/fat, and proteins

    • They serve as a source of energy.

    • Water is required in large amounts but does not yield energy.

  2. Micronutrients

    • Required in small quantities, generally in milligrams or microgram quantities.

      e.g. vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients

    • They play essential roles in metabolism by participating in biochemical reactions as coenzymes (proteins that help in enzyme activity and increase the rate of reaction).*

    • They do not provide energy, but some of them help in energy production.*

Lipids

Lipids

  • Fatty acids are the building blocks of lipids.

    Fat vs Oil
    • Fat is a lipid that is solid at room temperature (butter, ghee, lard).
      More saturated fats are less healthy.

    • Oil is a lipid that is liquid at room temperature (sunflower oil, olive oil).
      More unsaturated fats are healthier.

  • They may help increase the energy density of foods and help in the synthesis of hormones like sex hormones — estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone.*

  • There are various classifications of fatty acids based on the number of carbons, the shape of the carbon chain, etc.

  • Here we'll talk about the most relevant one:

    Classification based on nutritional properties: Essential & Non-essential fatty acids

    Essential fatty acids are usually a part of multivitamins, and the consumer needs to learn about the same before picking up any random fish oil from a store, instead making an informed choice about the amount and its sources.

    1. Essential fatty acids (EFA)
    • Not synthesized by the body

    • Need to be taken during a diet to fulfill the body’s requirement

    • They're known for their role in supporting brain health/8

    • It includes two families — linoleic (omega 6) and linolenic acid (omega 3)

    • Other EFAs are formed from these two, like DHA, EPA, and AA (refer to the flowchart below)

    1. Non-essential fatty acids (NEFA)
    • Synthesized by our body

    • Don't need to be taken through any outside food source.

    • It includes palmitic acid, oleic acid, butyric acid, etc.

Omega-3


Omegas: The OG of heart health & lustrous skin*

Omega fatty acids (omega-6 and omega-3) are a kind of EFA that humans, and other mammals like ruminants, rodents, etc., cannot synthesize in their bodies because they lack the desaturase enzymes required for their production.

  1. Omega-6 Family
  • The parent fatty acid that gives rise to Arachidonic acid

  • Available only in plant lipids.

  • Has rich sources — vegetable oils like sunflower, corn, saffron, sesame, soybean, and rapeseed.

Specific function of Omega-6: Health of Skin & Energy

  • Arachidonic acid is the major fatty acid of the epidermis — the outermost layer of skin — and may help maintain the integrity of the skin.*

    Good skin integrity is vital for good health because the skin acts as a barrier to microbes, toxins, and physical stressors such as sunlight and radiation. It is well known that the skin loses integrity with the aging process, and this makes older adults susceptible to pressure injury.*

  • As everyone knows, the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell that directly determines your energy levels. Omega-6 might play a role for the fragility of the mitochondrial membrane*

  1. Omega-3 Family

    Two key members of the Omega-3 family are EPA and DHA. They create healthy cell walls and may support defense mechanisms and immune health.*

    a. EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)

    • It may act as a precursor for prostaglandin-3, which inhibits blood platelet aggregation or coagulation (thickening of your blood), leading to increased blood pressure and related health problems

    • Transmits genetic information from generation to generation

    b. DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)

    • Important in the structure of brain cells, sperm cells, and retina cells. Their deficiency may be associated with vision problems, mental health disorders in some populations.*

    • It can also help reduce serum levels of triglycerides (stored saturated fats harmful to the heart), thus potentially supporting heart health.*

    • Rich sources: flaxseeds, walnuts, chia seeds, microalgae (Isochrysis, Tetraselmis, Chaetoceros, Thalassiosira, Nannochloropsis), cold water fishes like wild salmon, sardines, and anchovies.

    The problem with "Fishy Omega"

    First, raw fish is the best source of omega, because cooking could destroy the delicate omega-3. But gulping raw fish is not piece of cake for everyone.

    Second, these cold-water fishes may contain with heavy metals and toxins.

    Third, cold-water predatory fishes eat smaller fish, which are too exposed to pollutants that collect in their flesh and ultimately end up in the bodies of people who eat them.

    Fourth, the odor of fish oil is unbearable for some people.

    And finally, fish is a big NO for vegetarians and vegans.

Yet again it's become important for you to carefully assess the source of your omega supplements. It might be a good option to go with vegan omega supplements for some people.

PRotein

Proteins & enzymes

  • The common building blocks are amino acids.

  • 20 amino acids make up the proteins found in the human body, out of which:

    • 9 are essential amino acids (not formed in the body and need to be taken for your diet)

      • phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, leucine, and lysine

    • 11 are non-essential acids (formed in the body and need not be taken for your diet)

      • alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine

    Functions of some important amino acids

  • Glycine

    • Forms neurotransmitters in the central nervous system

    • May act as antioxidant and immunomodulatory*

  • Glutamic acid

    • Is a precursor of the neurotransmitter gamma butyric acid in the brain

    • Involved in learning and memory*

  • Arginine

    • Involved in:

      • the disposal of protein metabolic waste

      • the functioning of the immune system

      • the release of growth hormones*

      • collagen formation support*

      • the building of new bones and tendons*

  • Lysine

    • A parent substance of carnitine, which may help transport fats across your cells to be burned for energy*

    • Support collagen synthesis*

    • May aid calcium absorption from the gut*

  • Proline

    • Present in hemoglobin

    • Prevalent in the collagen of connective tissues

  • Phenylalanine & Tyrosine

    • May play a role for fetal and childhood brain development*

    • May help in the synthesis of melanin pigment in hair, the choroid lining of the eye, and the skin*

Digestive enzymes

Digestive enzymes

Proteins are combinations of amino acids. Some combine according to plan, to form body structures (everything from hair to toenails), while other combinations of amino acids produce subsets of proteins called enzymes.

Enzymes are proteins that may help speed up metabolism, or the chemical reactions in our bodies. They build up some substances and break others down.

Digestive enzymes are produced by our bodies and the following are their substrates:

  1. Peptidase and protease: proteins

  2. Lipase: fats

  3. Invertase, lactase, cellulase, amylase: starches and sugars (carbohydrates)

  • At times when you're no longer eating a particular food, your body stops producing that particular enzyme to break down that food. 

  • Taking a multivitamin that contains a digestive enzymes blend might help you to break down foods, and aids support absorption & digestive health.*

Coenzyme Q10: An enzyme helper

  • The activity of enzymes largely depends on organic molecules called coenzymes/cofactors.

  • Coenzymes (CoQ10) play an important role in energy production in the mitochondria.* 

Vitamins & phytochemicals

Micronutrients: Vitamins, minerals & phytochemicals

Vitamins:

  • Vitamins are essential micronutrients. They enable chemical reactions in the body but these reactions cannot occur if vitamins are not eaten in proper quantity.

Vitamins work synergistically (together) as well as independently. It might be a good choice to take a multivitamin-mineral supplement to build a solid nutritional foundation.

Fat-soluble Vitamins

  • Includes Vitamin A, D, E, and K

  • Not easily destroyed by usual cooking methods

  • Stored in the body 

  • Don't absorb if mineral oil is present in the intestines

    "One way to help 'ACE' your skin care is to include antioxidants such as Vitamin A, C & E in your daily supplementation regimen."

    - Secrets of Supplements  (reference: Askew & Paquette)

    1. Vitamin A (colorful vitamin)

      • Present in animal foods in form of retinol or retinyl esters

      • Present in plant foods in form of carotenoids (carotenes, xanthophylls, apocarotenoids)

        "Run the color range from yellow (peaches) to red (tomatoes) and they occur in almost every plant."(Wentzler)

      • Functions:

        • May play an important role in vision and develops rods and cones (cells responsible for vision in bright and dim light)*

        • Differentiates cells into specific cell types

        • Support skin lining*

        • May help in fetal development*

        • May help in the synthesis of bone protein*

        • Participates in bone remodeling*

    2. Vitamin E (beauty vitamin)

      • A generic term used for a group of lipid-soluble compounds — tocopherols & tocotrienols

      • Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form of Vitamin E

      • Functions:

        • One of its principal roles is being an antioxidant

        • Might have a sparing effect on Vitamin C and Vitamin A by protecting them from oxidation*

        • An healthy-aging vitamin – supporting aging due to oxidative damage*

        • Support iron metabolism*

    3. Vitamin K (koagulation vitamin)

      • It consists of related compounds called quinones

      • Vitamin K1 is called phylloquinone (plant source)

      • Vitamin K2 is called Menaquinone (animal source, also synthesized by intestinal bacteria in humans)

      Long-term use of antibiotics may destroy normal intestinal bacteria and reduces the synthesis of Vitamin K, so taking good probiotics and a Vitamin K supplement between antibiotic doses may be useful (consult with your doctor).*

      • Functions:

        • May help in the formation of blood clotting proteins (blood clotting is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured)

        • May help in the formation of osteocalcin, a protein in the bone that can bind calcium — low levels of Vitamin K may lead to low bone mineral density*

    4. Vitamin D (sunshine vitamin)

      • Vitamin D is a prohormone (precursor of hormone) that can help support healthy bones*

      • The prohormone gets activated when rays of sunshine fall on a person's bare skin (without sunscreen or clothing)

      • It is converted into an active hormone by the enzymes present in the liver and kidney

      According to the Harvard School of Public Health, 57% of the patients admitted to a Boston hospital were shown to be deficient in Vitamin D (2006).

      Functions:

      • May help absorb dietary calcium from the intestine and reabsorbs from the kidney*

      • May help regulate the calcium level in the body*

      • Plays a role in the differentiation of cells*

      • Supports immune health*

      • Might contributes to insulin secretion*

        Bone and joint health:*

        VITAMIN D + CALCIUM + PHOSPHOROUS + VITAMIN K

      • Higher doses of Vitamin D combined with calcium supplementation may help prevent falls (by strengthening muscles) and fractures (by increasing bone density). Higher doses of Vitamin D prevent first Osteoporotic fracture (JAMA 2005).*

Water Soluble Vitamin

Water Soluble Vitamins

  • Includes Vitamin C and B-complex vitamins

  • Compared to fat-soluble vitamins, these are unstable as they are easily affected by factors such as heat, light, oxidation, radiation, contamination by metals, etc.

  • They are affected by preparation practices, e.g. if the water in which the food is cooked is thrown away (some vitamins are mixed in with the water)

  • Excess intake of these vitamins results in urinary excretion of the surplus that the body cannot retain

Vitamin C

  • This vitamin derived its name because of its antiscorbutic or anti-scurvy properties

  • It's a highly unstable, reducing, easily oxidizable acid

  • Can be destroyed by high temperature, oxygen, and light, thus easily lost from food while chopping, processing, or cooking

    Functions:

  • Antioxidant*

  • Support collagen synthesis*

  • Helps in non-heme (plant-based) iron absorption*

  • Support the synthesis of carnitine (transporter that moves fatty acid inside the cell for energy production)*

  • May assist in the synthesis of thyroid and steroid hormones, bile acid*

  • Supports immune health by helping in the formation of lymphocytes (a white blood cell)*

B Complex

B complex Vitamins

Vitamin B deficiencies are linked to mental health, mood problems, energy, and even diabetes. Vitamins are essential nutrients that must be supplied by our diet and dietary supplements.

    1. B1 (Thiamine)

      • Also known as the 'Anti-neuritic Vitamin' because it supports neuromotor coordination*

      • Supports the body cells turn carbohydrates into energy*

    2. B2 (Riboflavin)

      • Helps in the absorption and metabolism of vitamins and minerals like Vitamin K, B6, B3, and folate*

      • Involved in the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow*

    3. B3 (Niacin)

      • Supports DNA repair and calcium mobilization*

      • Helps in the release of energy from glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids*

      • Involved in alcohol metabolism*

    4. B6 (Pyridoxine)

      • Helps in the synthesis of non-essential amino acids*

      • Helps in the formation of hemoglobin*

      • Assists in the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine*

      • Support the metabolism of homocysteine (homocysteine is toxic to cells)*

      • Helps in the synthesis of white blood cells*

    5. Folate/Folic acid

      • Helps to form DNA and RNA, and may be involved in protein metabolism*

      • Helps in the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the brain*

      • Aids the metabolism of homocysteine

    6. B12 (Cobalamin)

      • Helps in folate metabolism — lack of B12 might cause secondary folate deficiency, affecting DNA and protein synthesis*

      • Maintains the myelin sheath around nerve fibers (myelin sheath allows electrical impulses to transmit quickly and efficiently along the nerve cells)*

      • Helps oxidize fatty acids to use them for energy*

    7. Pantothenic Acid

      • Involved in fatty acid metabolism*

      • Helps synthesize neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin*

    8. Biotin/Vitamin H

      • May play an important role in energy metabolism*

      • Important in fetal development as it regulates gene expression*

    9. Choline

      • Forms cell membranes and aids in communication between neurons*

      • Is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which may be important for muscle control, learning, memory, and attention*

      • Supports positively neural tube defects*

      • Lower C-reactive protein (an indicator of inflammation in the human body).

      • The B Vitamins are crucial throughout your life to all biochemical activities in your body. B Vitamins may be necessary for most people because these delicate vitamins tend to get depleted easily and destroyed by a variety of factors like heat, light, synthetic chemicals, and others.

Minerals

Minerals:

Minerals are elements that are found in the earth and our food. They are essential to life, and because our body is unable to synthesize these minerals, they should be included in our diet.

Overview of functions of minerals in our body:

  • Water and electrolyte balance* – Sodium, Potassium, Chloride

  • Blood pressure regulation* – Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

  • Cell metabolism* – Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Chromium, Iodide

  • Growth and development* – Calcium, Phosphorus, Zinc

  • Bone health* – Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Fluoride, Manganese

  • Blood cell formation and clotting* – Iron, Copper, Calcium

  • Muscle contraction and relaxation* – Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium

  • Nerve impulse transmission* – Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium

  • Antioxidant defense* – Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese

Phytochemicals

    • Phyto means 'plant' in Greek

    • These are non-nutritive, bioactive, chemical compounds found in different parts of plants

    • They have great antioxidant potential

    • Are of great interest due to their beneficial effects on the health of human beings, especially in terms of immune system support

    • For example, beta carotene from green, yellow, and orange-colored vegetables, lutein from marigolds, lycopene from tomatoes, etc.

    • The Canadian & American Cancer Institute recommends eating ten servings of fresh fruits and vegetables every day for cancer protection. If you can't, or don't, look for concentrated fruit and vegetable supplements to fill this nutritional void.

 

Discover Codeage Daily Multivitamin formula below:

For women: 

Best multivitamin for women

For men: 

Best multivitamin for men

 

How to consume multivitamins and at what time?

  • Some vitamins need water to dissolve (water-soluble vitamins) while some vitamins need fat to dissolve (fat-soluble vitamins).

  • Because of their water-soluble and fat-soluble properties, vitamins are best taken with food so there is sufficient water and fat to act as the required solvents.

  • Once you've finished your meal, the blood flow to your stomach increases.

  • This increased blood flow facilitates improved absorption of the vitamins and other nutrients contained in your multivitamin supplements.

    Do's & Don'ts of multivitamins

    • Take multivitamin with food, whichever meal timing suits you best.

    • Do not take certain multivitamin on an empty stomach as it may lead to nausea.

    • You can gulp the capsule down with plain water while having meals.

    • Do not chew on tablets unless they're gummy vitamins.

    • Follow all directions on the product package or take as directed by your doctor.

    • Do not take more than the recommended dosage.

    • If you have any questions, ask a trustworthy healthcare professional or registered dietitian nutritionist.

    • Consume fermented multivitamins as they encourage the growth of friendly bacteria and enhance the absorption of multivitamins.

    • Take multivitamin regularly to reap their benefits to the max.

    • Take it at the same time every day so it'll become a routine and you won't forget.

    • Pregnant/nursing mothers, children under 18, and individuals with a known medical condition should consult a physician before taking multivitamin or any dietary supplements.

    • Please exercise caution if you have allergies or are sensitive to any of the listed ingredients.

    • Store in a cool dry place.

    • Use this product as a food supplement only. Do not use it for weight reduction.

Conclusion

It is important to remember that a multivitamin cannot in any way replace whole foods and a healthy, balanced diet. The main purpose of a multivitamin is to fill in nutritional gaps and provide only a hint of the vast array of healthy nutrients and chemicals naturally found in food. It cannot offer flavor or the enjoyment of food which is why having an optimal diet is key. Multivitamins can still play an important role when nutritional requirements are not met through diets alone. Taking multivitamin-mineral supplements along with essential fatty acids and phytonutrients builds a solid nutritional foundation, which is usually missing in a 21st-century plate.

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  4. Mahan, L. K., & Escott-Stump, S. (2020). Krause's food & nutrition therapy. 15th ed. St. Louis, Mo., Saunders/Elsevier.

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  6. Sports Nutrition: Vitamins & Trace Elements, Edited by Judy A. Driskell & Ira Wolinsky,2006, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group

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  8. Mario Ochoa Becerra, Luis Mojica Contreras, Ming Hsieh Lo, Juan Mateos Díaz, Gustavo Castillo Herrera, Lutein as a functional food ingredient: Stability and bioavailability, Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 66, 2020, 103771, ISSN 1756-4646, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.103771.

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